Uterine Polyps (Causes & Treatment)

Uterine polyps, also known as endometrial polyps, are growths that develop in the lining of the uterus (endometrium). While they are typically non-cancerous, they can cause discomfort and lead to various reproductive health concerns for women. In this article, we will explore the causes, symptoms, and treatment options for uterine polyps, helping individuals gain a better understanding of this common condition.


Causes and Risk Factors of Uterine Polyps

  • The exact cause of uterine polyps remains unclear, but several factors are believed to contribute to their development. Hormonal imbalances, specifically an excess of estrogen relative to progesterone, are considered a primary cause. Estrogen stimulates the growth of the uterine lining, while progesterone regulates its shedding. When this hormonal balance is disrupted, the lining can thicken and result in the formation of polyps.
  • Certain factors increase the likelihood of developing uterine polyps, including:
  • Hormonal imbalances: Conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and obesity can cause an imbalance in hormone levels and raise the risk of polyp development.
  • Age: Uterine polyps are more common in women who have reached menopause, although they can occur at any age.
  • Medications: Prolonged use of certain medications, such as tamoxifen (used in breast cancer treatment), may increase the risk of polyp formation.
  • Endometrial hyperplasia: An overgrowth of cells in the lining of the uterus can increase the likelihood of developing polyps.
  • Family history: A genetic predisposition may contribute to the development of uterine polyps.


Uterine polyps can cause a range of symptoms, including:

Irregular menstrual bleeding: This can include heavy or prolonged periods, spotting between periods, or bleeding after menopause.

Pelvic pain: Some women may experience pain in the pelvic region, particularly during menstruation.

Infertility or recurrent miscarriages: large polyps or multiple polyps can interfere with the implantation of a fertilized egg or disrupt the normal development of a pregnancy.

Vaginal discharge: Polyps may lead to abnormal discharge, which can be watery, bloody, or pus-filled.


Diagnosis and Treatment

  • If uterine polyps are suspected, a healthcare provider may perform several diagnostic tests to confirm their presence and rule out other underlying conditions. These tests may include:
  • Transvaginal ultrasound: This imaging technique uses sound waves to create detailed images of the uterus, allowing for the visualization of polyps.
  • Hysteroscopy: A thin, flexible tube with a camera is inserted through the vagina and cervix to directly examine the uterus and remove polyps if found. It can also be used for biopsy.
  • Endometrial biopsy: A small sample of the uterine lining is taken and examined under a microscope to check for abnormalities.
  • Treatment options for uterine polyps depend on various factors, such as the size, number, and symptoms experienced. These may include:
  • Observation: If the polyps are small, asymptomatic, and not causing any issues, a “watch and wait” approach may be taken. Regular monitoring and follow-up exams may be recommended to ensure they don’t grow or cause any problems.
  • Medications: In some cases, hormonal medications like progestins or oral contraceptives may be prescribed to help regulate the menstrual cycle and reduce symptoms. These medications can help shrink or prevent the growth of uterine polyps.
  • Hysteroscopy with polypectomy: A hysteroscopy is a minimally invasive procedure that involves inserting a thin, lighted tube (hysteroscope) through the vagina and cervix into the uterus. The hysteroscope allows the doctor to visualize the uterine cavity and remove polyps using specialized instruments. This procedure is often performed as an outpatient procedure under local or general anesthesia.
  • Dilation and curettage (D&C): D&C is a surgical procedure in which the cervix is dilated, and the uterine lining is scraped or suctioned to remove the polyps. It may be performed under general anesthesia or conscious sedation. D&C is commonly used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.
  • Hysterectomy: In cases where the polyps are large, numerous, recurrent, or causing severe symptoms, a hysterectomy may be considered. This surgical procedure involves the removal of the uterus and sometimes the cervix as well. Hysterectomy is a definitive treatment and is usually reserved for women who have completed their childbearing or have other medical conditions that warrant the removal of the uterus.

The appropriate treatment for uterine polyps should be determined by a healthcare professional after a thorough evaluation of the individual’s specific situation. It’s important to consult with a gynecologist or a specialist in reproductive medicine for an accurate diagnosis and personalized treatment plan.


Prevent Uterine Polyps

While I can provide some general information on preventing uterine polyps, it’s important to note that medical advice should always be sought from a healthcare professional. They can offer personalized guidance based on your health circumstances. Here are some general tips that may help reduce the risk of uterine polyps:

  • Regular gynecological check-ups: Schedule regular visits with your gynecologist or healthcare provider. They can perform pelvic exams and screenings to detect any abnormalities, including uterine polyps.
  • Maintain a healthy weight: Excess body weight, especially obesity, is associated with an increased risk of uterine polyps. Focus on maintaining a healthy weight through a balanced diet and regular physical activity.
  • Exercise regularly: Engage in regular physical activity, such as aerobic exercises or walking. Regular exercise helps maintain hormonal balance and overall health.
  • Hormone therapy: If you are undergoing hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for menopausal symptoms, discuss the potential risks and benefits with your healthcare provider. Hormone imbalances can contribute to the development of uterine polyps.
  • Use birth control: Certain types of hormonal contraceptives, such as birth control pills or intrauterine devices (IUDs), can help regulate hormone levels and reduce the risk of developing uterine polyps.
  • Avoid prolonged use of tamoxifen: Tamoxifen, a medication used in breast cancer treatment, may increase the risk of uterine polyps. If you are taking tamoxifen, discuss the potential risks with your healthcare provider and follow their recommendations for monitoring.
  • Address hormonal imbalances: Conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or endometrial hyperplasia can contribute to hormonal imbalances, which may increase the risk of uterine polyps. If you have these conditions, work with your healthcare provider to manage and regulate your hormone levels effectively.
  • Quit smoking: Smoking has been associated with an increased risk of developing uterine polyps. If you smoke, consider quitting, and seek support if needed.

Remember, these steps are general recommendations and may not apply to everyone. It’s essential to consult with a healthcare professional for personalized advice based on your specific health situation.

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Dr. Adeeb AlShahrour

Dr. Alshahrour is a highly skilled obstetrician and gynecologist who provides compassionate care to women of all ages. He has years of experience in the field, and is dedicated to helping his patients achieve the best possible health outcomes.