Family planning | Contraception methods

Contraception is an essential aspect of reproductive health that empowers individuals to make informed choices about family planning and sexual well-being. With a wide array of contraceptive methods available today, it’s crucial to understand the options and their implications. This article aims to provide a comprehensive guide to contraception, exploring different methods, their effectiveness, and the factors to consider when choosing the right one for you.


Understanding Contraception:

Contraception refers to methods or devices designed to prevent pregnancy by either inhibiting fertilization or implantation of a fertilized egg. It grants individuals the freedom to control the timing and frequency of pregnancies, which can significantly impact their lives, relationships, and personal goals.


Types of Contraceptive Methods:

  1. a) Hormonal Methods:
  • Oral contraceptives (the pill)
  • Contraceptive patch
  • Vaginal ring
  • Injectable contraceptives
  • Implants
  1. b) Barrier Methods:
  • Male and female condoms
  • Diaphragms
  • Cervical caps
  1. c) Intrauterine Devices (IUDs):
  • Copper IUD
  • Hormonal IUD
  1. d) Permanent Methods:
  • Tubal ligation (female sterilization)
  • Vasectomy (male sterilization)
  1. e) Fertility Awareness-Based Methods:
  • Tracking menstrual cycles
  • Basal body temperature
  • Cervical mucus method
  1. f) Emergency Contraception:
  • Morning-after pill


Factors to Consider When Choosing a Contraceptive Method:

  • Effectiveness: Each method varies in its effectiveness rate, and it’s important to choose one that aligns with your desired level of pregnancy prevention.
  • Health Considerations: Individual health factors, such as age, medical history, and existing conditions, may influence the suitability of certain contraceptive methods. Consultation with a healthcare provider is essential to assess compatibility.
  • Convenience and Ease of Use: Consider the method’s practicality, including frequency of administration or usage, possible side effects, and the level of involvement required during sexual activity.
  • STI Protection: Some contraceptive methods, like male and female condoms, also protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This consideration is crucial when engaging in sexual relationships with new or multiple partners.
  • Reversibility: Depending on your future reproductive plans, you might prefer a method that allows for a quick return to fertility once discontinued.


Empowering Conversations and Accessibility:

Open and informed conversations about contraception with healthcare providers, partners, and support networks play a vital role in making the right choices. It’s essential to access reliable information from reputable sources, attend regular check-ups, and consider individual needs and preferences when selecting a contraceptive method.

Furthermore, ensuring the accessibility and affordability of contraception is crucial for promoting reproductive rights and reducing unintended pregnancies. Governments, healthcare systems, and advocacy groups need to work together to provide comprehensive education, affordable options, and confidential services to all individuals.


What is the safest contraception method?

The safety of contraception methods can vary depending on various factors such as individual health conditions, proper usage, and consistency of use. It’s important to consult with a healthcare professional to determine the best contraception method for your specific situation. Here are some commonly considered safe contraception methods:

  • Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptives (LARCs): LARCs, such as intrauterine devices (IUDs) and contraceptive implants, are highly effective and require minimal user intervention. They provide long-term protection and are one of the most effective forms of contraception.
  • Birth Control Pills: When taken correctly and consistently, oral contraceptives can be highly effective in preventing pregnancy. They require daily use and a prescription from a healthcare professional.
  • Contraceptive Injection: The contraceptive injection, commonly known as the Depo-Provera shot, is given every three months and provides effective contraception during that time.
  • Barrier Methods: Barrier methods such as condoms, both male and female, provide a physical barrier to prevent sperm from reaching the egg. When used correctly and consistently, condoms can be highly effective in preventing both pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
  • Sterilization: Surgical sterilization methods, such as tubal ligation (for females) or vasectomy (for males), are considered permanent forms of contraception. They are highly effective but should be approached with the understanding that they are not reversible.

Remember, no contraceptive method is 100% effective at preventing pregnancy or protecting against STIs. It’s essential to consult with a healthcare professional to discuss your options and make an informed decision.


Natural family planning 

Natural Family Planning (NFP), also known as fertility awareness-based methods, is a form of birth control that involves monitoring and interpreting a woman’s natural fertility signs to determine when she is most and least likely to conceive. It relies on observing various indicators of a woman’s menstrual cycle to identify the fertile and infertile phases.

Here are some commonly used methods of natural family planning:

  • Basal Body Temperature (BBT) Method: This method involves taking your basal body temperature every morning before getting out of bed. A slight temperature rise indicates that ovulation has occurred, indicating the start of the fertile phase.
  • Cervical Mucus Method: This method involves observing changes in the cervical mucus throughout the menstrual cycle. As a woman approaches ovulation, the mucus becomes clear, slippery, and stretchy, resembling raw egg whites, indicating fertility.
  • Calendar Rhythm Method: This method involves tracking the length of your menstrual cycles over several months to predict the fertile days. It assumes that ovulation occurs around the same time each month, usually around the midpoint of the cycle.
  • Symptothermal Method: This method combines multiple indicators, such as BBT, cervical mucus, and changes in the cervix, to identify the fertile and infertile phases more accurately.

It’s important to note that natural family planning methods require careful monitoring and education to be effective. They rely on abstinence or using barrier methods (e.g., condoms) during the fertile phase to prevent pregnancy. These methods can be highly effective when used correctly, but they do have a higher risk of unintended pregnancy compared to hormonal contraceptives or intrauterine devices. Therefore, if you are considering using natural family planning, it is advisable to consult with a healthcare professional or a certified fertility awareness educator to learn the specific details of each method and receive proper guidance on how to track and interpret fertility signs accurately.



Contraception is an indispensable tool that allows individuals to take control of their reproductive health and make informed decisions about family planning. By understanding the various contraceptive methods available, considering personal needs, and engaging in open conversations, individuals can select the most suitable option. Prioritizing access to contraception and comprehensive reproductive health services will contribute to healthier, empowered, and more fulfilled lives for all.

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Dr. Adeeb AlShahrour

Dr. Alshahrour is a highly skilled obstetrician and gynecologist who provides compassionate care to women of all ages. He has years of experience in the field, and is dedicated to helping his patients achieve the best possible health outcomes.