The causes of bleeding during pregnancy

The causes of bleeding during pregnancy

Pregnancy is an incredible journey that brings joy, anticipation, and sometimes a few concerns. One common concern that can arise during pregnancy is vaginal bleeding. While any bleeding can understandably cause worry, it is essential to understand that not all bleeding during pregnancy indicates a serious problem. In this article, we will explore the various causes of bleeding during pregnancy and guide when to seek medical attention.

Causes of Bleeding During Pregnancy

  • Implantation Bleeding: In the early stages of pregnancy, around 6-12 days after conception, some women may experience light spotting or bleeding. This occurs when the fertilized egg attaches itself to the uterine lining. Implantation bleeding is generally harmless and lasts only a short duration.
  • Hormonal Changes: The surge in hormones during pregnancy can lead to increased blood flow to the cervix, making it more sensitive. As a result, some women may experience light bleeding after sexual intercourse or a pelvic exam. This type of bleeding is typically minimal and temporary.
  • Cervical Changes: As the pregnancy progresses, the cervix changes to prepare for delivery. Increased blood flow and cervical irritation may cause minor bleeding. This is usually not a cause for concern unless it is accompanied by other symptoms, such as severe pain or heavy bleeding.
  • Miscarriage: Unfortunately, bleeding can be a sign of miscarriage, particularly during the first trimester. Miscarriage typically involves heavy bleeding accompanied by abdominal pain and cramping. If you experience these symptoms, it is crucial to seek immediate medical attention.
  • Ectopic Pregnancy: An ectopic pregnancy occurs when the fertilized egg implants outside the uterus, often in the fallopian tube. Vaginal bleeding, along with abdominal pain and shoulder pain, can indicate an ectopic pregnancy. This condition is a medical emergency and requires immediate medical intervention.
  • Placenta Previa: Placenta previa occurs when the placenta partially or completely covers the cervix. It can cause bleeding, particularly in the later stages of pregnancy. Persistent bleeding, bright red, may indicate placenta previa. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional if you experience such bleeding.
  • Placental Abruption: Placental abruption is a serious condition in which the placenta separates from the uterine wall before delivery. It can cause vaginal bleeding, usually accompanied by severe abdominal pain and uterine contractions. Immediate medical attention is necessary in such cases.


When to Seek Medical Attention

While some causes of bleeding during pregnancy may not be alarming, it is crucial to contact your healthcare provider whenever you experience bleeding to ensure the well-being of both you and your baby. Additionally, seek immediate medical attention if you notice any of the following:

  • Heavy bleeding, like a period or more.
  • Severe abdominal pain or cramping.
  • Passage of blood clots.
  • Dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting.
  • Shoulder pain or pain in the lower back.
  • Fever or chills.

Remember, your healthcare provider is the best source of guidance and can conduct necessary tests to determine the cause of the bleeding and provide appropriate care.


What bleeding is OK during pregnancy?

During pregnancy, any type of bleeding should be taken seriously and evaluated by a healthcare professional. While some bleeding may be considered normal in certain circumstances, it is always essential to consult with a doctor or midwife to rule out any potential complications. Here are some types of bleeding that may occur during pregnancy:

  • Implantation bleeding: Some women experience light spotting or bleeding around the time of their expected period when the fertilized egg attaches itself to the uterine lining. This is known as implantation bleeding and is generally considered normal. It is usually lighter and shorter in duration compared to a regular period.
  • Light spotting: Occasional light spotting or brownish discharge may occur during early pregnancy. This can be due to hormonal changes or mild cervical irritation. It is generally not a cause for concern unless it is accompanied by severe pain or heavy bleeding.
  • Sexual intercourse: Some women may experience light bleeding after sexual intercourse during pregnancy. This can happen due to increased sensitivity of the cervix or the presence of engorged blood vessels in the cervix. However, it is still advisable to inform your healthcare provider if you experience bleeding after sex.
  • Cervical changes: The cervix can be more sensitive during pregnancy and contact with the cervix during a pelvic exam or a vaginal ultrasound may cause light bleeding. This is usually not a cause for concern and should resolve quickly.
  • Subchorionic hematoma: Sometimes, a blood clot may form between the placenta and the uterine wall, which is known as a subchorionic hematoma. This can lead to light to moderate bleeding. While most subchorionic hematomas resolve on their own without causing harm to the pregnancy, it is important to inform your healthcare provider if you experience any bleeding.

It is worth noting that heavy bleeding, bleeding accompanied by severe abdominal pain or cramping, the passage of tissue or clots, or any other concerning symptoms should be promptly reported to a healthcare professional. They will be able to provide you with appropriate guidance and determine the cause of the bleeding.


Stop bleeding in pregnancy

 If you are experiencing bleeding during pregnancy, it’s essential to seek immediate medical attention from a healthcare professional, such as your obstetrician or midwife. Bleeding during pregnancy can be a sign of various conditions, some of which may require urgent medical intervention. Here are some steps you can take while waiting for medical assistance:

  • Contact your healthcare provider: Inform them about the bleeding, its severity, and any accompanying symptoms you may be experiencing. They will provide you with specific guidance based on your situation.
  • Rest and lie down: Lie on your left side to help improve blood flow to the placenta and reduce pressure on the cervix.
  • Avoid strenuous activities: Refrain from activities that may exacerbate the bleeding, such as heavy lifting, intense exercise, or sexual intercourse.
  • Stay hydrated: Drink plenty of water to maintain hydration, which is essential for overall health.
  • Avoid inserting anything into the vagina: Refrain from using tampons, douches, or any other objects that could potentially introduce bacteria and increase the risk of infection.
  • Monitor the bleeding: Keep track of the amount and type of bleeding, including any associated pain, cramping, or clots. This information will be helpful for your healthcare provider.

Remember, these are general guidelines, and it’s crucial to consult with a healthcare professional for personalized advice. They will assess your specific situation and provide appropriate recommendations to address the bleeding during pregnancy. Regular prenatal care and open communication with your healthcare provider are vital to ensure a healthy pregnancy and to address any concerns promptly.

Dr. Adeeb AlShahrour
Dr. Adeeb AlShahrour

Dr. Alshahrour is a highly skilled obstetrician and gynecologist who provides compassionate care to women of all ages. He has years of experience in the field, and is dedicated to helping his patients achieve the best possible health outcomes.